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Radiological Safety

Caution: Radiation Area Radiological Controls Manual (LLE INST 6610) pdf: 4.2 MB
Radiological Materials Shipment (LLE INST 6680) pdf: 1.6 MB
UR Medical Center Radiation Safety Unit (Requires UR HRMS login to access)
Radiation Safety Training for General Radiation Workers pdf: 1.1 MB
Dosimetric Calculations pdf: 153 KB


Federal and State regulations govern the UR/LLE Radiation Safety Program

Types of radiation governed by the radiation safety program

Mass Charge Penetrating ability Shielding
Alpha 4 +2 Very low Skin, paper
Beta ~0.0003 ±1 Low Clothing, plastic
Gamma 0 0 High Lead, water
Neutron 1 0 High Water, plastic

Units of activity and measurements of radiation

Principal OMEGA facility radiation sources

Radiation exposure limits and natural sources

To protect people from any harmful effects, radiation exposure from other than natural sources is limited by law to the following:
Radiation worker exposure limit 5,000 mrem/year
General public exposure 100 mrem/year


Surface contamination, airborne, and annual limit on intake tritium limits and basis

Natural radiation sources and exposure levels are as follows:
Cosmic rays (from outer space) 45 mrem/year/person
Terrestrial (from natural minerals) 65 mrem/year/person
Internal (from elements in the body) 25 mrem/year/person

Biological effects of radiation

Typical radiation doses from other activities

Dose (mR/yr) Source
4 Reading glossy magazines for 1 h/d from U and K
25 to 4,000 Wearing enameled jewery 10 h/wk from U
100 to 200 Radon gas inhalation
100 to 200 Foods and fertilizers from K and U
100 Flying 5,000 miles per month
2,000 to 5,000 Smoking 1 pack of cigarettes/day
From Po and Pb for U decay series


Effects of large acute exposures

Dose (rem) Effect
0 to 50 rem No obvious effects, some blood chemistry changes
100 rem Minor radiation sickness in about 10% of population
150 rem Minor radiation sickness in about 25% of population
200 rem Radiation sickness in about 50% of population
300 rem Radiation sickness in all exposed, about 20% death rate within one month
450 rem About 50% death rate without medical treatment
500 rem Radiation sickness within 4 h, over 50% death rate
1000 rem Radiation sickness in 1 to 2 h, 100% death rate


Radiation protection measures

Operating procedures to ensure radiation safety


Immediate actions must be taken after a radioactive material “spill” to prevent spreading contamination and minimize exposure.